The national straw industry technological innovation strategic alliance is based on the guiding opinions on promoting the construction of industrial technological innovation strategic alliance (gkfz  No. 770) and the overall implementation plan of national technological innovation project (gkfz  No. 269) issued by six departments including the Ministry of science and technology, As well as the provisions of the Interim Provisions of the national science and technology plan on supporting industrial technological innovation strategic alliance (gkfj  No. 338), the "national straw industry technological innovation strategic alliance" (Guo Lian Zi  No. 064) (hereinafter referred to as "straw alliance") was approved by the national industrial technological innovation strategy (cultivation) alliance, Straw holding (Group) Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as "straw holding") is the chairman unit, and Peng Fei, chairman of straw Holding Co., Ltd., is the chairman of the alliance.
On June 10, the website of the Ministry of Environmental Protection released the information of straw burning points monitored by the national environmental satellite and meteorological satellite in May.
From May 1 to May 31, environmental satellites monitored a total of 210 fire points burning straw all over the country (excluding the fire point information under cloud cover), including 124 in Heilongjiang, 22 in Inner Mongolia, 22 in Xinjiang, 19 in Jilin, 7 in Henan, 5 in Hebei, 5 in Liaoning and 2 in Hubei, 1 in Shanxi, Yunnan, Gansu and Anhui, and 0 in Shandong and other provinces, regions and cities; In May, meteorological satellites monitored 22 fire points burning straw, including 17 in Heilongjiang, 1 in Yunnan, Guangdong, Henan, Liaoning and Inner Mongolia, and 0 in Shandong and other provinces, regions and cities.
"Five troubles" of comprehensive utilization of straw
For a long time, the state has attached great importance to the scientific and technological research and development of comprehensive utilization of straw, and formed key technologies such as straw cultivation of edible fungi, briquette fuel, biodiesel and feed lignin degradation. The Ministry of agriculture has specially set up "crop straw returning technology" and other public welfare industry scientific research projects, and specially set up straw utilization post scientists in the modern agricultural industrial technology system to carry out technical research, development, transformation and upgrading of new problems and needs such as straw returning and leaving the field.
The Ministry of science and technology has established a special research and development project for comprehensive prevention and remediation technology of agricultural non-point sources and heavy metal polluted farmland to carry out research on the generation, transformation and prevention and control of agricultural organic waste. The Ministry of science and technology, the Ministry of Finance and the State Administration of Taxation further incorporated the pretreatment technologies such as crop straw crushing and sorting into the high-tech fields supported by the state (2016), and increased policy support for science and technology enterprises. Sichuan Province has organized and implemented seven major projects, including "integrated demonstration of key technologies of straw returning to the field and new economic planting mode, and research and development of straw treatment technology and machines and tools", to drive the development of straw industry in the province. Henan Province has carried out technical research in straw ethanol and straw to biofuel, which shows a good prospect for the utilization of straw with high added value.
At the end of the 12th Five Year Plan, the comprehensive utilization rate of straw in China reached 80.1% and the proportion of agriculture reached 66%, including fertilizer utilization rate of 43.2%, feed utilization rate of 18.8% and base material utilization rate of 4.0%.
In 2016, the state allocated 1 billion yuan to carry out the pilot of comprehensive utilization of straw in 10 provinces: Hebei, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Jiangsu, Anhui, Shandong and Henan. "According to the performance evaluation results of 10 pilot provinces in early 2017, the pilot work of Jiangsu, Anhui and Shandong was outstanding, and the overall score ranked among the top three." Liu Yan, inspector of the Department of science, technology and education of the Ministry of agriculture, pointed out at the on-site exchange meeting on the comprehensive utilization of wheat straw.
Although the comprehensive utilization of straw in China has made great progress, there are still many weak links and many problems and challenges.
First, the cost of returning farmland is high. According to the investigation and study of some provinces by the Ministry of agriculture, the cost of returning farmland in wheat maize rotation area in Huang Huai Hai area increased by 76-88 yuan / mu; The rice wheat rotation area in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River increased by nearly 60 yuan / mu; The increased cost per mu of double cropping rice area in South China is also about 50 yuan; At the same time, the gap of some high-power tractors is serious, which greatly limits the enthusiasm of farmers to return straw to the field.
Second, the cost of leaving the field is large. According to the survey and calculation of the Ministry of agriculture on Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei and surrounding areas, the cost of leaving the field of straw is about 60 ~ 120 yuan per mu, which is roughly equivalent to 15% ~ 30% of the net income of single season crops. Without special subsidies, it is difficult for farmers to bear.
Third, the technical support is weak. The standard of straw returning is not standardized, and the phenomenon of relying on feeling and experience is still common in some places; Domestic straw binding small machinery is basically mature, large machinery depends on imports, and there is a lack of domestic high-power machinery with low cost, long service life and urgent need in the market; Straw processing technology is also relatively backward.
Fourth, the supporting policies are not perfect. The current straw comprehensive utilization policies are mostly set up for a certain link and lack systematic support for the whole industrial chain. It is urgent to form a systematic supporting policy system in the aspects of straw returning subsidies, collection, storage and transportation, processing and utilization. There are still difficulties in implementing some land, electricity and fiscal and tax policies that have been issued, which has affected the investment of social capital in the development and utilization of straw.
Fifth, the collection, storage and transportation system is not perfect. At present, the collection, storage and transportation service system is still in its infancy, the development of brokers, cooperatives and other service organizations lags behind, there are still deficiencies in socialization, specialization and marketization, and the infrastructure construction can not keep up, resulting in great difficulty in leaving the field. The phenomenon of "it is difficult to harvest stalks, store stalks and transport stalks" is widespread.
The wheat harvest in Huang Huai Hai is imminent, and the government, industry, University and Research Institute will work together
In the key technology research of "research and development of comprehensive prevention and remediation technology for agricultural non-point source and heavy metal polluted farmland", "research and development of nitrogen leaching resistance control technology and products in the main production areas of wheat and maize", "research and development of technology and equipment for anaerobic fermentation and recycling of agricultural waste" are all related to the comprehensive utilization of agricultural waste such as straw, In order to better deploy and promote the work of key special projects, and at the time of wheat harvest in the Huang Huai Hai sea, as a professional organization for project management of the central financial science and technology plan, the science and technology development center of the Ministry of agriculture, together with the Department of science and technology education and the Department of agricultural mechanization of the Ministry of agriculture, held an on-site exchange meeting on the comprehensive utilization of summer wheat straw in Lanling County, Shandong Province on June 12.
At the exchange meeting, the Ministry of Finance sent representatives to observe on the spot and invited experts from the agricultural departments of 8 provinces and cities including Hebei, Shanxi, Jiangsu, Anhui, Shandong, Henan, Sichuan and Shaanxi, the key special project of "research and development of comprehensive prevention and remediation technology for agricultural non-point sources and heavy metal polluted farmland" and the technical system of modern agricultural industry to participate. Organize government, industry, University and research to promote all forces, jointly discuss the comprehensive utilization of wheat straw, study and deploy the next key work of comprehensive utilization of straw, and continuously improve the supporting capacity of agricultural green development.
In 2020, the comprehensive utilization rate of straw will reach more than 85%. It is imperative to implement the concept of green development.
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